Robotic Prosthetic Surgery – Robotic Arthroplasty


What is Robotic Prosthesis Surgery?

Advances in technology, along with innovations in prosthetic surgery, have brought important developments for human health. While the place of robotic surgery in medicine is becoming more important day by day, robotic technology is also used in orthopedics.

Robotic Total Hip Prosthesis, Robotic Unicondylar Prosthesis Surgery can be performed with the application of robotic surgery in joint prostheses, also called Arthroplastic Robotic Surgery, Robotic Prosthesis Surgery and Makoplasty.

Arthroplastic Robotic Surgery; They are advanced auxiliary systems used to increase the accuracy and sensitivity of the application during knee or hip replacement surgery. It covers operations such as planning the surgery, obtaining data and uploading it to the system, and performing the surgery. Robot; It helps the surgeon to perform the planned prosthesis placement procedure without any errors as planned.
All data of the patient to be operated on; It is converted into 3-D format with the help of tomographic imaging and placed in the memory of the robotic surgery system. Thus, the robot ensures that all sensitive procedures are performed in a controlled manner during surgery.

The patient who is decided for robotic surgery has a computed tomography scan using a special method. The data is loaded into the robot’s memory. The program determines the dimensions of the prosthesis most suitable for the patient’s knee and places it on a virtual model prepared in the light of the data obtained from the patient. The human eye cannot make this placement using standard x-rays as the robot does. The surgeon performing the surgery ensures that the metal prosthesis is placed in the exact location in accordance with the virtual coordinates created in the robot’s memory. An experienced surgeon uses the system as required and performs the planned surgery almost without error.

In Robotic Prosthetic Surgery, the robot does not perform the surgery. The operation is performed by a doctor who has received special training and certification for robotic surgery, while the robot assists the doctor. Thus, it is aimed that human ability and technology are in harmony and co-operation and the operation is carried out in the most successful way.

What are the Advantages of Robotic Prosthesis Surgery?

The most important advantage of robotic prosthesis surgery is that it allows the surgery to be performed more precisely than classical methods. Robotic surgery is an auxiliary system that enables the targets to be achieved with minimum error. The risk of prosthesis dislocation, which can be seen in 4% after hip replacement surgery, reduces the complication to 1%. Since the bone is intervened very precisely in robotic surgery, the possibility of embolism is reduced.

If we summarise the advantages of robotic prosthesis surgery;

  • Healthy bone and soft tissues are fully preserved
  • Customised prosthesis is offered according to the patient
  • The knee prosthesis is placed with the highest precision and pinpoint accuracy
  • Blood loss is less
  • A more painless and faster healing process
  • The return to everyday life is quicker and more comfortable
  • Less postoperative pain
  • Less hospitalisation
  • Better mobility
  • Longer prosthesis life

What are the Tasks of the Robot in Robotic Arthroplasty?

Evaluation of the patient’s data after the imaging and planning of some points in the operation are among the tasks provided by the robotic system. Before the operation, the incisions of the bones and the positions of the parts are planned on the computer. During the operation, the robotic arm supports the incisions.

In robotic prosthesis surgery, patient-specific planning is made. A few days before the operation, film and tomography are taken and uploaded to the system. Calculations of the prosthesis are made according to the 3D modelling created. The doctor organises the surgery to be performed in accordance with this planning with his own observations. The robotic arm prevents possible errors that may develop outside of the planning during the procedure.

Are all robotic systems the same?

There are different robotic surgery systems. However, the Makoplasty system, which has developed gradually in the last 15 years of 55 years of prosthetic surgery history, first partial prosthesis, then hip prosthesis and finally knee prosthesis, is different at this point: The system is not only a mechanism directed by the doctor with navigation, but also has its own robotic arm system. This robotic part is not only in name, but also allows the robot to intervene and assist the doctor in a way that prevents the operator from making mistakes.

In a study conducted between Makoplasty and traditional prosthetic knee surgery, it was seen that there was an average of 4 times more precise cutting and 3 times more accurate implant placement. In hip prosthesis, the rate of dislocated hip complications is 4 times less.