Gastroscopy is the examination of the upper digestive tract with a long tube-shaped instrument that can be bent and has its own light source and a camera at the end. The upper digestive tract starts from the mouth and includes the pharynx (oesophagus), stomach and the first part of the small intestine called the duodenum.

Gastroscopy is performed to diagnose and treat diseases affecting the digestive system such as oesophagus, stomach and intestines. Gastroscopy is performed by Gastroenterology specialists according to the course of the disease, the patient’s complaints and the symptoms of the diseases. The places where this procedure will be performed are defined by regulations and the instruments used are called endoscopic methods.

When is gastroscopy necessary?

  • – Problems with swallowing and chewing,
  • – Persistent heartburn and burning in the stomach,
  • – Abdominal pain,
  • – Bleeding from the upper digestive tract,
  • – Vomiting,
  • – Gastroscopy is required if there are abnormal findings in the stomach and intestinal films taken.

How is gastroscopy performed?

Gastroscopy can take about 15 to 20 minutes. The specialist doctor aims to start the gastroscope from the patient’s mouth and carefully advance it through the oesophagus to reach the stomach and from there to the duodenum. In order to prevent the patient from feeling any pressure in the throat and oesophagus while the specialist doctor is performing this procedure, anaesthesia or sedation can be administered according to the patient’s request and the choice of the specialist doctor before the procedure.

In this procedure, the specialist doctor detects abnormal conditions in the digestive system by seeing the image projected on the screen. After the gastroscopy procedure is completed, the specialist carefully removes the gastroscope device from the patient’s mouth and the patient is asked to lie on his/her back or side. After the patient lies down, the patient’s blood pressure and heart rate are analysed at intervals. The patient can go home after the anaesthesia effect is completely over and the patient rests. Depending on the condition of the disease, the specialist may ask the patient to stay in hospital overnight after the gastroscopy procedure.


In micturition cystography, the urinary tract is visualised during voiding by means of a contrast medium introduced into the bladder through a catheter. Urine culture should be performed beforehand to prevent a possible infection from being transferred to the kidneys. In case of microbial growth in the culture, the examination is performed after the infection is treated. If the culture is clean, there is no harm.


A catheter is inserted into the bladder and radiograms are taken by filling the bladder with contrast material given through the catheter, then the catheter is removed, the patient starts to urinate, during this time, various radiograms are taken to see whether there is escape from the bladder to the upper urinary tract. No discomfort is felt during the procedure except for the insertion of the catheter and a feeling of tightness. All procedures are completed in approximately 25 minutes.

Radiological Examination of Female Reproductive Organs

It is the examination of the uterus and tubes by introducing contrast material into the uterus. The method is called “hysterosalpingography”. It is performed 7 to 10 days after the patient’s last menstrual period. Before the examination, the patient must take painkiller tablets and antibiotics prescribed by the doctor. No other preparation is required.


A thin tube is inserted into the uterus and the passage of the iodised contrast material from the uterus to the tubes and abdominal cavity is monitored. Radiograms are taken at certain intervals during this passage. All procedures are completed in about 10 minutes. Sedoanalgesia is performed by the anaesthesiologist.

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